Chapter summary imageGlobal Stratification ranks countries based on objective criteria like wealth and power.

What is Global Stratification?

the categorization of countries based on objective criteria, such as wealth, power, and prestige, which highlight social patterns and inequality throughout the world.

What Are the Theories Behind Global Stratification?

World Systems Theory:

the world is divided by its connection to economic power.

Neocolonialism:

powerful nations use loans and economic power to maintain control over poor nations.

Globalization:

a complex process by which the world and its international economy are becoming more and more intertwined; some argue that an aspect of globalization is exploitation. Others suggest that it is the only hope for poor nations.

What is Being Done to Assist Underdeveloped Countries?

foreign aid, Peace Corps.

Theory

Functionalism

  • global stratification is a result of geographic conditions
  • Diamond: European countries thrived because they had natural resources that helped those societies function more efficientlylions will rule the day, but eventually foxes will take charge

Conflict Theory

  • an imbalance of power between the elites and the poor in a country causes stratification
  • Pareto: even among elites, power changes occur; in times of struggle, lions will rule the day, but eventually foxes will take charge
  • Mosca: leaders will do what they can to remain in power because it’s in their best interests to do sote

Symbolic Interactionism

  • looks at how language and symbolic events influence society
  • Reid: Europeans increasingly identify themselves as members of Europe, not the specific country in which they were born

Key Terms

Global Stratification

is the categorization of countries based on objective criteria, such as wealth, power, and prestige, which highlight social patterns and inequality throughout the world.

Social Stratification Systems

are slavery, caste, and class systems.

Slavery

is the total control over people who have no choice about their status.

Chattel Slavery

is a form of slavery in which a slave is considered property.

Debt Bondage

is a form of slavery in which someone borrows money in order to repay a different debt, and works off the new debt.

Contract Slavery

is a form of slavery in which a person signs a work contract, receiving food and shelter from an employer, but is threatened when he or she tries to leave the contract.

Caste Systems

are systems in which a person’s position may be a position of power and privilege or of disadvantage, but in either case his or her place is permanently fixed.

Rentiers

are the wealthy members of a society, as identified by Weber.

Entrepreneurs

are the business class, as identified by Weber.

Petite Bourgeoisie

are small business owners in Weber’s class system.

Bureaucrats

are managers of business and government agencies.

Craftsmen

are the skilled laborers such as plumbers or carpenters.

Semi-skilled Manual Workers

are the workers who have some training and may work in factories.

Unskilled Workers

are the lowest class, consisting of people who frequently perform manual labor jobs that are often unpleasant and sometimes dangerous.

Neocolonialism

is a process in which powerful nations use loans and economic power to maintain control over poor nations.

Globalization

is a complex process by which the world and its international economy are becoming more and more intertwined.

Brain Drain

occurs when the best talent leaves poor countries and thereby provides an even greater advantage to wealthy countries.

Essay

1. What are the positive and negative effects that globalization can have on underdeveloped nations?

2. What are the differences between a caste system and a slave system?

3. According to Marx, how does the bourgeoisie successfully promote false consciousness?

4. What characteristics does Weber use to determine social class?

5. How could wealthy nations be using multinational corporations to control poorer nations?

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