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macrosociology and microsociology.
social institutions and structures serve essential functions in a society
the structure and culture of the underprivileged are deliberately weakened for the benefit of the dominant group
social construction of reality: “If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”
high-quality preschool programs: improve the lives of the participants; decrease the amount of funding needed for other social programs (special education, welfare)
is the study of large-scale society, focusing on the social structures that exist within a society and examining how those structures create the social world.
is the study of the small inter- actions of daily life.
are patterns of relationships that endure from one generation to the next.
are any number of people with similar norms, values, and behaviors who frequently interact with one another.
are groups that are small, intimate, and enduring.
are groups that are formal, superficial, and temporary.
is a group with similar access to power, wealth, and prestige.
is the position that you occupy within the social structure, which is often closely linked to social class.
is a type of position that you earn or do something to attain.
is a position in society that is given or assigned.
is the status toward which we gravitate.
is the behavior of a specific status.
are the anticipated behaviors for a particular role.
is the degree to which a person plays the role in a manner we expect.
is a phenomenon occurring when one is forced to choose between the competing demands of multiple roles.
occurs when the demands and expectations of one role are impossible for us to satisfy.
is a mark of disgrace associated with a particular status, quality, or person.
is a stigma that cannot be hidden from others or is no longer hidden from others.
is a stigma that can be concealed from others.
are structures that provide for patterned relationships.
refers to community connections that involve personal relationships based on friendship and kinship ties, such as family.
refers to societal connections that are more formal and impersonal.
is the invisible bubble that each of us has around ourselves to insulate us from others.
is distance reserved for those with whom we are very close.
is distance that ranges from 18 inches to 4 feet; this distance is for normal conversations.
is distance that ranges from about 4 feet to 12 feet and is usually reserved for formal settings.
is the zone of interaction that is used in highly formal settings; this distance includes everything greater than 12feet.
is management of the impression that the performer makes on others.
is what the audience see, or the part of ourselves that we present to others.
is the demeanor that incorporates our true feelings and beliefs.
is a state that occurs when we realize our act has failed.
is a reaction to embarrassment in the form of either humor, anger, or retreat.
refers to shared characteristics such as race, gender, or age.
refers to techniques that involve flattering your boss and agreeing with your boss’ opinions (or at least avoiding disagreements whenever possible).
refers to techniques that include acting modest about your accomplishments (even if that modesty is false), boasting occasionally about your successes, and showing your friendliness and self-assuredness through smiles and eye contact.
1. What are the differences between an industrial society and a post-industrial society?
2. How do societies demonstrate adaptation and replacement for survival? Give examples.
3. Why is it important to observe the conventions of personal space?
4. Explain how a group might change from a Gemeinschaft to a Gesellschaft.
5. Which systems would a conflict theorist target when addressing the issue of poverty? Why?