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the scientific procedures that sociologists use to conduct research and develop knowledge about a particular topic.
through analysis of quantitative data using cross-sectional studies, comparative studies, longitudinal studies, surveys, and experiments; through analysis of qualitative data using participant observation, case studies, and ethnographies.
through analysis of statistics and by conducting needs assessments.
is a science guided by the basic understanding that “the social matters: our lives are affected, not only by our individual characteristics but by our place in the social world.
are the scientific procedures that sociologists use to conduct research and develop knowledge about a particular topic.
is the ability to conduct research without allowing personal biases or prejudices to influence you.
are variables that are deliberately manipulated in an experiment.
are the response to the manipulated variable.
are variables that are kept constant to accurately test the impact of an independent variable.
is a relationship in which one condition leads to a certain consequence.
is the relationship between cause and effect.
is an indication that one factor might be a cause for another factor.
includes two variables that move in a parallel direction.
occurs when variables move in opposite directions.
occurs when two variables appear to be related, but actually have a different cause.
is investigation conducted by social scientists.
is a study of relevant academic articles and information.
is a comprehensive and systematic explanation of events that lead to testable predictions.
involves a suggestion about how variables relate.
are abstract ideas that are impossible to measure.
is turning abstract ideas into something measurable.
refers to the process used to find information.
means able to be trusted.
assures that you’re actually measuring the thing you set out to measure in the first place.
use data from different sources in order to evaluate them against each other.
look at one event at a single point in time.
include data from observations over time using a cohort.
is a specific group of people used in a study.
is an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions.
are target groups from which researchers want to get information.
extreme unwillingness to use resources.
is a subset of a population.
is the extent that what is learned from a sample can be applied to the population from which the sample is taken.
is a group of subjects arbitrarily chosen from a defined population.
is the process of taking a bigger sample if the group you wish to study makes up a small percentage of the whole population.
is a nonrandom sample available to the researcher.
are the likelihood that a nonrepresentative sample of the population may lead to inaccurate results.
occurs when people behave differently because they know they are part of an experiment.
is research conducted in a natural setting.
is a type of field research in which the researcher poses as a person who is normally in the environment.
are investigations of one person or event in detail.
is a research method that aims to understand the social perspective and cultural values of a particular group by participating with or getting to know their activities in detail.
are data that others have already collected and published.
is the process of using and analyzing data that others have collected.
is the numbers in the middle of an array of numbers.
is an average.
refers to the midpoint in a distribution of numbers.
refers to the most common value in a distribution of numbers.
is a system of values or principles that guide one’s behavior.
refer to data based on numbers.
include words, pictures, photos, or any other type of information that comes to the researcher in a non-numeric form.
is a type of research in which the sociologist looks for common words or themes in newspapers, books, or structured interviews.
is the process of using multiple approaches to study a phenomenon.
is an analysis that studies the needs of a specific group and presents the results in a written statement.
1. How could you argue that Humphreys’ study of the tearoom trade violated ethical standards of sociological study?
2. What caveats should you keep in mind when reading statistical evidence?