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a violation of norms that have been written into law.
people are social and are not prone to act criminally unless some biological, psychological, or social factor is involved.
people make rational choices to commit crimes based on pleasure/pain calculations.
through a three-part criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections.
is the violation of norms that a society agrees upon.
is the violation of norms that have been written into law.
is the scientific study of crime, deviance, and social policies that the criminal justice system applies.
refers to many different types of criminal acts, such as burglary, rape, and assault.
are official police statistics of reported crimes gathered from police reports and paperwork.
is the measurement of crime victimization based on contact with a representative sample of over 70,000 households in the United crime indexis made up of eight offenses used to measure crime: homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
suggests that laws arise because people see a behavior they do not like, and they agree to make it illegal.
proposes that powerful people write laws to protect their own interests while punishing the actions of those they wish to control.
is a deliberate effort to attach a negative meaning to a behavior.
is a permanent label given to an offender, which could actually increase the chances of reoffending because the guilty person is forever labeled.
is an effort to bring an offender back into the community after punishment.
is a measure that prevents a per- son from doing something because of fear of the consequences.
is a measure that ensures individuals will not commit a crime because they see the negative consequences applied to others, and they fear experiencing these consequences.
is a measure that changes the attitude of individuals, who have already violated the law and have been punished, by causing them never to commit crime again.
is the tendency for inmates released from prison to return to prison.
emphasizes that criminal and deviant behavior is learned.
argues that criminals cannot resist the temptations that surround them.
is the social bond that refers to our relationship to others.
is the social bond that refers to our dedication to live a socially accept ablelife.
is the social bond that refers to the level of activity in conventional things.
is the social bond that refers to a person’s conviction of truth.
is the initial deviant act itself.
refers to the psychological reorientation that occurs when the system catches a person and labels him or her as a deviant.discretionis the ability to make decisions.
is an out-of-court agreement between the prosecutor and the defense attorney to some concession, usually a reduced sentence.
are fixed sentences for specific crimes.
1. How are police shows different than real-life police work?
2. Do the poor commit more crimes than other members of society?
3. Why is it difficult to make international comparisons about crime statistics?
4. Why are only certain things illegal?
5. What is wrong with the U.S. prison system?