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behavior, either verbal or physical, that is used to intentionally harm another individual 200
an undesirable experience that may include pain, discomfort, overcrowding, or attack 209
a theory that suggests that when a person experiences something with a negative result, such as pain or discomfort, aggressive behavior can often occur in the wake of that experience 205
a culture in which strong norms suggest that aggression is an appropriate response to an insult or threat to one’s honor 202
when physiological reactions to violence are reduced as a result of repeated exposure 212
an action or behavior that is clearly derived from the aggressor and is aimed directly at the target 201
a method of aggression in which aggression is used as a way to express anger and reduce stress 201
a feeling of being upset or annoyed by the inability to reach a goal or perform an activity 205
a theory stating that frustration precedes aggression because our motivation for aggression increases when our current behavior is interrupted or we are prevented from reaching a goal 205
a theory that builds on the social learning theory and provides a more integrative framework for specific theories of aggression by including situational and personal variables 207
a behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is to make the victim suffer 200
an action or behavior that is not clearly derived from the aggressor, and where it is not obvious to the target that he or she has been the victim of aggression 201
a theory in which aggression is an innate and inevitable force 203
a behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is not to make the victim suffer, but to attain a non-injurious goal 200
a process by which a person mimics another’s behavior 206
an action or process that strengthens a behavior 206
a theory that suggests that human aggression is largely learned by observing the aggressive behavior of other people and is reinforced by consequences such as punishment or reward in the individual’s environment 205
1. Which of the following situations is an example of hostile (affective) aggression?
a. A baseball player rushes the pitcher’s mound after being hit by a ball.
b. A basketball player elbows an opponent in the eye after a rebound.
c. A football player knocks down a receiver after he catches the ball.
d. A soccer player steps on the foot of an official while going for the ball.
2. What group would most likely be the target of aggression?
c. the elderly
3. Which of the following is an example of indirect aggression?
a. a verbal insult to a person’s face
b. a punch in the stomach
c. a rumor that is told in secret
d. a noticeable snub at a party
4. What is the flaw in the instinct theory?
a. It only applies to animals and does not apply to human behavior.
b. It does not take into account the differences in behavior between individuals.
c. It does not include verbal aggression.
d. It does not take history into consideration.
5. Which of the following is not a biological force of aggression?
b. biochemical makeup
6. Reinforcements influence aggression by
a. creating additional frustration
b. rewarding behavior
c. regulating stimuli
d. increasing environmental cues
7. According to GAM, what are elements of a given situation that can increase aggression?
a. biological variables
b. situational factors
c. personal factors
d. instinct variables
8. Which of the following is not an element of an aversive experience?
9. Through what method of influence does television induce violence?
10. Which of the following is a method to reduce aggression?
a. increased arousal
b. genetic engineering
c. non-aggressive modeling
ANSWERS: 1. a; 2. d; 3. c; 4. b; 5. d; 6. b; 7. b; 8. b; 9. a; 10. c
1. Is the fighting a soldier engages in during wartime considered emotional or instrumental aggression? Why? Can it be both?
2. Give an example of a culture of honor in the United States and explain the forces that impact that culture.
3. How do biological factors work with environmental factors to impact aggression?
4. What reinforcements and punishments (positive and negative) might be involved in a physical fight between two men over a woman they both have interest in?
5. How strongly does television influence your behavior? Have you ever modeled the behavior of an actor?
Conduct your own study on the effects of violent song lyrics. Ask your friends to bounce a ball against a wall as they listen to a song that includes lyrics about violence and then a song that includes neutral lyrics. Notice the change, if any, in the force your participant uses while listening to each song.
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