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The approach to studying learning that suggests an exclusive focus on overt, observable, and measurable responses and the discarding of references to inner thoughts, feelings, and motivations is called __________.
The concept of __________ learning occurs when an animal links two events that occur together.
Psychologist Edward Tolman demonstrated that rats would learn to complete a maze in a shorter period of time, but only when they had an incentive to do so. This is known as __________ learning.
You wake up at 3 in the morning, with a mouth as dry as dirt! You want to go down to the kitchen to get a glass of milk, but do not want to wake up everyone in the house by turning on the lights. Even though you’re walking in the dark, you are able to get to the kitchen without too much risk because you have a _________ of the layout of your house.
In Ivan Pavlov’s original demonstration of classical conditioning, why is the food referred to as an unconditioned stimulus?
Because the food is something the animal had to learn that it wanted in all cases.
Because the animal knows he is going to get food whether he salivates or not, so salivation is not a “condition” of getting food.
Because the food evokes the salivation response before any intentional learning has taken place.
Because lower animals do not have the capacity to decide what they will and will not respond to, so all stimuli for animals other than human beings are “unconditioned.”
Julio has been dating Maria for the past 2 years, and has grown accustomed to the scent of her favorite perfume. After their relationship ended, Julio was walking through a store, minding his own business, when a woman passed who was wearing the same perfume. Instantly, Julio turned around and started looking for his lost love. In this example, what is the conditioned stimulus?
The strange woman in the store
The scent of the perfume
Julio looking for his lost love
The classic, though somewhat controversial, experiment of little Albert was used to show that __________ can be conditioned in human beings.
Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of how psychology relates to events involving the __________ and immune systems.
While __________ conditioning focuses on spreading a reflexive response to a new precipitating stimulus, __________ conditioning utilizes an organism’s ability to associate actions with future consequences.
A positive reinforcer is effective because:
it is a way of adding something that is aversive, like a spanking or a penalty
it is a way to remove something that a person dislikes, like a restriction or a punishment.
it involves the use of a “good” reward, which most people are interested in receiving.
it involves giving a person a reward for a desirable activity.
The beauty of birthday presents is that you get them once a year. No matter how much you beg, you generally will not get them until the full year has passed. This is an example of a __________ schedule of partial reinforcement.
Although different people have different views on whether punishment or reinforcement is the best way to alter behavior, most agree that:
Both punishment and reinforcement are both most effective when they immediately follow the performed behavior.
Punishment works better for adults, while reinforcement works better for children.
The only way to truly alter a person’s behavior is if they really want to change. Otherwise it makes no difference whether you use punishment or reinforcement.
Negative reinforcement is better than positive reinforcement, and negative punishment is better than positive punishment.
Which psychologist is famous for his “Bobo Doll” experiment, which is considered a classic study demonstrating the principles of observational learning?
To learn by observation, an organism must be able to reproduce the action that is being observed – a concept known as __________.
At the age of 16, Martin watched his older brother Lawrence get trained as an EMT, and then as a paramedic. He enjoyed hearing the stories of how Lawrence worked on the ambulances, occasionally saving a life, and this led Martin to experience a strong desire to become an EMT himself. In this case, Lawrence served as a __________ model for his younger brother.
__________ involves periodically scanning an environment to make sure that nothing in the environment has changed.
According to the mass action principle, which kinds of tasks are most affected by lesions to the brain?
Katya convinces herself that the best way to prepare for her final exam tomorrow is to pull an ‘all-nighter’ studying while artificially maintaining her energy with pot after pot of caffeinated coffee. Ironically, the research into the effects of sleep-deprivation on the brain have found that:
extended periods of sleep can be just as disruptive to long-term potentiation as extended periods of wakefulness.
long-term potentiation seems to be most likely to occur when an organism is well-rested.
long-term potentiation is least likely to occur in the mornings.
the effects of sleep deprivation on long-term potentiation have been found to be nonexistent, but the ingestion of caffeine severely diminishes long-term potentiation.
Which of the following processes occurs within a few hours of learning a new bit of information?
__________ neurons respond both when an organism performs a task and when it watches another organism perform the same task.
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