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Why was the study of cognition generally dismissed or ignored prior to the 1950s?
Because the technology needed to study cognition had not yet been invented prior to the 1950s.
Because psychologists chose instead to focus on visible behaviors, and many of the topics of cognitive psychology are not readily observable.
Because cognition was seen as existing under the “umbrella” of religion and philosophy, two fields that were at great odds with the study of psychology.
Because there was no real literature that discussed how we think, so there was nothing upon which to base the study of cognition.
Which of the following activities would not be of interest to a researcher in cognitive psychology?
Thinking and knowing
While Alfred Binet is generally credited with creating the first test used to measure intelligence, this is actually a bit of a mistake! The test that he developed, in fact, measured a child’s __________.
The ability to process information and act accordingly is called __________ intelligence, while the mental ability derived from previous experience is called __________ intelligence.
What is the difference between a prodigy and a person with savant syndrome?
The prodigy is a label reserved for adults, while a savant is a label reserved for children
The savant is a label reserved for adults, while a prodigy is a label reserved for children.
The savant is usually of normal overall intelligence, while the prodigy is usually of below-average intelligence.
The prodigy is usually of normal overall intelligence, while the savant is usually of below-average intelligence.
The neural component of intelligence may not be as closely related to a brain’s size as it is to the brain’s __________, which refers to its ability to grow and change.
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, and people is called a __________.
Martha has lost her keys. She looks in her purse, only to find that they are not there. She looks in various places – rooms of her house, cushions of the sofa, even in the refrigerator – but she keeps coming back to her purse to make sure that the keys are not there. Martha’s tendency to solve the problem using a successful past solution is an example of __________.
the mental set
Which of the following might demonstrate the result of discursive, or theoretical, reasoning?
Opting to delay studying for an exam so that you can go to a party tonight
The willingness to turn down a job now so that you can get a better job later
The decision to camp out all night to buy tickets to a rock concert
A person’s religious beliefs
All politicians are dirty, crooked, and dishonest, right? How many examples of dirty politicians can you come up with? The fact that you might be able to immediately think of a few examples of dirty politicians may lead you to believe that all politicians are, in fact, dishonest. This is an example of the __________ heuristic.
When people are presented with too many conflicting frames, they may avoid making a decision at all. This avoidance is called decision __________.
The neurotransmitter that helps people make decisions that lead to good outcomes and avoid bad outcomes is __________.
Which part of the brain is responsible for helping us adhere to social and behavioral roles, as well as helping us to link our behaviors to their potential consequences?
The executive control system
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex
The parietal cortex
Mara is at a cocktail party, and is looking for her boyfriend Jared. While searching through the dozens of faces, she overhears a conversation where someone says, “I heard Jared was going to be late.” Her attention is then directed right to the people having the conversation. Mara’s attempt to look for Jared is an example of __________ attention, while her sudden interest in the conversation of a complete stranger is an example of __________ attention.
The psychological __________ period refers to a moment of time when the brain is processing one stimulus and it is temporarily unable to process a second stimulus.
The feature __________ theory, forwarded by psychologist Anne Treisman, suggests that we organize stimuli based on knowledge about how their features should be combined.
Have you ever been distracted while you were speaking and accidentally switched the sounds of two words? For example, a person might mean to say “I’m going to get a turkey sandwich,” and instead say “I’m going to get a surkey tandwich.” This type of expressive inversion is called a __________.
A very popular book that discusses common grammatical errors is called “Eats, shoots and leaves.” This book title is humorous because the __________ ambiguity allows for two possible interpretations of the thought: (1) a person had a meal, pulled out and fired a gun, and then exited, or (2) an animal consumes both shoots and leaves as part of its diet.
Linguistic __________ states that different languages impose different conceptions of reality. A prime example of this is the fact that the ancient Mayan culture had no word that meant “zero,” and thus their reality did not include a concept of the “absence of value.”
The __________ theory suggests that concrete words are mentally represented both visually and verbally, whereas abstract concepts are only represented verbally. This might explain why abstract concepts are more difficult to retrieve at some future point.
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